John Daltons Atomic Theory. Covalent Bonding Lewis structure Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry. The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in. Download chapter 2 atomic structure and chemical bonding document. On this page you can read or download chapter 2 atomic structure and chemical bonding in PDF format.
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If you don't see any interesting for you, use our search form below: Find.The development of modern atomic theory revealed much about the inner structure of atoms. It was learned that an atom contains a very small nucleus composed of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, surrounded by a much larger volume of space containing negatively charged electrons. For a perspective about their relative sizes, consider this: If the nucleus were the size of a blueberry, the atom would be about the size of a football stadium Figure 2.
Atoms—and the protons, neutrons, and electrons that compose them—are extremely small. When describing the properties of tiny objects such as atoms, we use appropriately small units of measure, such as the atomic mass unit amu and the fundamental unit of charge e.
The amu was originally defined based on hydrogen, the lightest element, then later in terms of oxygen. Sinceit has been defined with regard to the most abundant isotope of carbon, atoms of which are assigned masses of exactly 12 amu. The Dalton Da and the unified atomic mass unit u are alternative units that are equivalent to the amu.
Atomic Structure Worksheet Answer Key
A proton has a mass of 1. A neutron is a slightly heavier particle with a mass 1. The properties of these fundamental particles are summarized in Table 2. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is its atomic number Z. This is the defining trait of an element: Its value determines the identity of the atom.
For example, any atom that contains six protons is the element carbon and has the atomic number 6, regardless of how many neutrons or electrons it may have. A neutral atom must contain the same number of positive and negative charges, so the number of protons equals the number of electrons.
Therefore, the atomic number also indicates the number of electrons in an atom. The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called its mass number A. Atoms are electrically neutral if they contain the same number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons. When the numbers of these subatomic particles are not equal, the atom is electrically charged and is called an ion.
The charge of an atom is defined as follows:. As will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter, atoms and molecules typically acquire charge by gaining or losing electrons. An atom that gains one or more electrons will exhibit a negative charge and is called an anion.
Positively charged atoms called cations are formed when an atom loses one or more electrons.Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding.
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Pople, and J.A paramanu does not exist in the free state, rather it combines with other paramanus to form a bigger particle called the anu now called a molecule.
Democritus called paramanu as atom which comes from the Greek word atomos, meaning indivisible. It is formed by removing two electrons from the helium atom. Solution 4: Cathode rays are the beam of electrons which travel from the negatively charged end i. Formation of cathode rays: Generally gases are poor conductors of electricity. However, when a high voltage charge from an induction coil is applied to tubes filled with gases at very low pressure 0.
These rays are called cathode rays and they travel from the cathode towards the anode. Solution 5: Cathode rays are negatively charged as they consist of negatively charged particles called electrons. Properties of cathode rays:.
Selina Concise Chemistry Class 9 ICSE Solutions Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding
Solution 6: When a beam of cathode rays is made to fall upon hard metallic targets like tungsten, X-rays are produced. Solution 7: When perforated rays were used in the discharge tube, another set of rays travelling in a direction opposite to that of the cathode rays, i. These rays are called canal rays because they passed through the holes or canals in the cathode. These rays were named positive rays or anode rays.
Solution Electrons are embedded into this sphere, and the total positive charge of the sphere is equal to the total negative charge of electrons, and hence, the atom remained electrically neutral.
This model was not accepted because it was unable to explain how positively charged particles were shielded from negatively charged particles without getting neutralised.
Solution Rutherford selected gold metal because he wanted as thin a layer as possible, and gold is the most malleable metal.
Heavy metals such as platinum will show the same observation with alpha particles as shown by gold foil. If a light nucleus like lithium is used, then fast-moving alpha particles may even push the light nucleus aside and may not be deflected back.
Solution The nucleus was discovered by Rutherford. Solution Rutherford performed an experiment by allowing a stream of alpha particles to pass through a very thin gold foil. He observed that alpha particles pass through the metal foil without deviating from their path.Moss's Science Classes. Search this site. Navigation Home. Classroom Syllabus, Expectations, and Supplies:. Classroom Notebooks. Goals and the Health Triangle- 1st chapter for Health.
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